Nwoya: Geographical Features
The climate of the district is modified by the large swamp area sorrounding it. The rainy season is March to November, with a marked minimum in June, and marked peaks in April to May and August to October. December and January are the driest months. Of recent rainfall has been unreliable and unpredictable hence affecting the activities of people e.g agriculture, livestock rearing etc.
Rainfall normally ranges from 1000mm to 1500mm coming in two seasons; March–July and September – November. There is normally a short dry spell between the two rain seasons during mid June – mid July. The long dry season sets in during late November through to early March. The distribution is such that areas bordering Northeast experience earlier dry seasons. This is also a common occurrence at the lakeshore areas, which sometimes experience very sharp spells of drought.
Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Evapo-transpiration
Nwoya district generally records a mean annual maximum temperature of around 31.3o C and a mean minimum of around 18oC. Its extreme highest temperatures are in the month of February when it records approximately 35oC. The highest ever recorded was in February 1949 where temperatures reached 40oC.
Relative humidity ranges from 66% to 83% at 0600GMT in the morning. However, it reduces much in the afternoon (35%-57% at 1200GMT) thereby reducing chances of rainfall.
During the N.E monsoon the area is swept by a wind that has traversed Somalia, passed between Abyssinian massif and Kenya highlands and the hills of Karamoja. The water vapour content of this wind is consequently low.
The southwards passage of the inter-tropical convergence zone in October would appear to bring no more rain than is sufficient to produce a gradual falling off from the July peak.
There are relatively high rates of evaporation in Nwoya District as it lies near the equator. Evaporations are particularly high in the dry seasons.
Geology and Soils
The Nwoya district IHM assessment commenced with a Livelihood zoning exercise carried out with key district stakeholders and confirmed that Nwoya lies in a mixed agriculture zone. The zone is relatively flat characterized by streams and forests with fertile sandy loam soils
Nwoya has vegetation, which can best be described as wooded savannah, grass savanah, forests and riparian vegetation. The wooded savanna mainly comprises moist Acacia savanna associated with hyparrhenia spp and combretum savanna associated with hyparrhenia spp.